BY BRUCE M. WATSON HEAD OF DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS, HIGH SCHOOL, SYRACUSE, N.Y. AND CHARLES E. WHITE PRINCIPAL OF FRANKLIN SCHOOL, SYRACUSE, N.Y. BOSTON, U.S.A. 1909 سر و INTRODUCTION The Intermediate Arithmetic is divided into two parts, each containing a full year's work. Throughout the book the pupil is led to see, in each new topic, an extension and application of principles previously learned. Fractions are treated as expressions of division. The work in decimals is presented as an extension of the decimal scale of notation to numbers smaller than one. Percentage is treated as an application of decimals a familiar topic under a new name. There is no formal division of percentage into “ cases,” but the pupil is led to apply his knowledge of the relation of product and factors in determining the process to be employed in the solution of each individual problem. All technical commercial terms are reserved for later consideration. The work in denominate numbers is confined to such problems as people of the present generation are likely to meet in their daily vocations. Extended reductions and intricate measurements are not required. Attention has been given to the development of ideas of proportion, the real purpose of the so-called “ ratio exercises” found in some courses of study. An effort has been made to shorten the course and simplify the work, to a reasonable degree, by reducing each topic to as few cases as possible, and by employing the simplest and most generally applicable processes. The study of arithmetic should furnish the child a means of interpreting mathematically the world about him. It should iii |