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IMPLICATIONS OF THE FARM AS A THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEM

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How it all began I have been privileged to have had practical experiences as a practicing Agricultural Engineer before becoming a teacher of Agricultural Engineering. I started my professional journey at the Bakolori Irrigation Project, Talata Mafara, Sokoto State (in the present Zamfara State) in 1988 as a maintenance Engineer. Later, I briefly participated in the opening of some rural roads in the old Oyo State before getting a full appointment as an Executive Agro-processor with Oyo State Agricultural Development Programme (OYSADEP), where I rose to become a Senior Agricultural Engineer. In OYSADEP, I was involved in the fabrication and installation of agro-processing equipment and storage facilities for needy farmers throughout the old and new Oyo States. My journey towards a career...
Discuss several issues that influence the organization of logistics activities within a firm.

Discuss several issues that influence the organization of logistics activities within a firm.

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We have several issues which influence organization of logistics activities in a firm such as numbers of customers, the location of customers and the size of organization. The number of customers can be an influence to an organization in such a way that it can be a determinant in the structure of logistics department to be implemented and size of organization can also be a determinant to different logistics activities.
How have the rules and systems developed in early prisons continue to influence corrections today?

How have the rules and systems developed in early prisons continue to influence corrections today?

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In the early days they used vigilante justice otherwise referred to as an eye for an eye. This is when the victim or the victim's family would seek revenge. That changed to government justice. The government stepped in and stopped the eye for an eye and determined that if a crime was committed that it was a crime against society and not the individual and the government would decide the punishment. Then they went to corporal punishment where they utilized not only physical punishment but also psychological punishment. Eventually, the most popular punishment was incarceration. This was most of a psychological punishment.

How have the rules and systems developed in early prisons continue to influence corrections today?

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The penalty of crime has changed throughout the years. According to our textbook, in the Sumerian and Babylonian time, crime utilized death, mutilation, whipping, forced silence and forced labor for others as a part of punishment. Throughout the years, prisons such as Pennsylvania and Auburn systems were established. These systems were established with the idea of prisons being locked up in their own cells. There have been some bumps in the road to but, forth that effort of single celled prisons. “Then as now, however, state legislatures were reluctant to provide the capital and operating budgets to accommodate the ever-increasing numbers of prisoners. Almost all prison cells were designed for single inhabitants, with dining, work, education, and recreational facilities corresponding to th
How have the rules and systems developed in early prisons continue to influence corrections today?

How have the rules and systems developed in early prisons continue to influence corrections today?

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Today’s corrections system is a lot different from the prison system of the pass, most people can’t imagine an era when stealing was punished by cutting off the hands of offender’s. One of the important changes was vigilante justice, (which was very common in the ancient time) to government justice, where the government owned the crime and take on the responsibility for the punishment, in which the criminal will receive. There were many different forms of corporal punishment like, beating, amputation, and shackling, which are still used in some counties. Corporal punishment is based on deterrence, meaning if individuals are hurt or embarrassed in public they will not commit another crime.
How have the rules and systems developed in early prisons continue to influence corrections today?

How have the rules and systems developed in early prisons continue to influence corrections today?

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There has been branding, mutilation, banishment, public humiliation, fines and imprisonment throughout the years of the prison systems. There were instruments used such as the skull cracker which was used to interrogate suspects, the pear which was inserted into an orifice of either a man or woman, and the rack which was used strictly for punishment (Allen, Latessa, Ponder, 2016). These pictures alone, made me glad I was not born during that era. In the early prisons, such as Pennsylvania and Auburn, they believed that staying silent or showing remorse for one's crimes would prevent "cross infection" and promote good behavior. Those who supported the Pennsylvania prisons did so because they believed being separated from other prisoner's allowed one time to think about the crime they had co
How have the rules and systems developed in early prisons continue to influence corrections today?

How have the rules and systems developed in early prisons continue to influence corrections today?

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In some of the earliest prisons they had rules; two very famous prisons were The Hospice of San Michele and the Maison de Force in Ghent, Belgium.  Inmates were whipped and had to adhere to the rule of silence. Prisons today have rules and prisoners are held responsible for their actions, if they do not follow the rules of the prison. Now prisoners are no longer being whipped different methods are beings used like solitary confinement. One of the best systems that came about was parole. Parole began at the end of the 1800s. When it was instituted, many prisoners were already receiving leniency, pardons and early release for good behavior. Parole began with reformatories but spread to all prisons, Parole is still a system that is being use today. “At yearend 2014, an estimated 4,708,100
How could the concept of selective incapacitation be successful in a time when prison populations are excessively high?

How could the concept of selective incapacitation be successful in a time when prison populations are excessively high?

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Selective incapacitation is the practice of seperating, usually through imprisonment of another form of confinement, some criminal offenders from the noncriminal members of society (Leone, 2017).  It differs from strict (or general) incapacitation, a method of assigning penalties that is rigid in it assertion that (1) sentencing of convicted criminals should adhere strictly to a rulebook: (2) during the sentencing phase of a trial, it is wrong to allow input of an individual criminal's special circumstances or to allow judicial choice of one particular penalty from among a range of penalties: (3) for each specific crime, equity mandates assignment of only one appropriate penalty (Leone, 2017). Selective incapacitation would be successful in a time when prisons populations are excessively h
How could the concept of selective incapacitation be successful in a time when prison populations are excessively high?

How could the concept of selective incapacitation be successful in a time when prison populations are excessively high?

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Selective incapacitation is the method of division, normally by imprisonment or further shape of incarceration, a few violators from the non-criminal participants of the community. It's dissimilar from restrict incapacitation a system of assigning penalties that's rigid. Selective incapacitation debilitating of high-risk inmates who exhibit faith to arrange an important probability of additional law breaking in the forthcoming. They say this a "nothing else works," method (Allen, Latessa & Ponder, 2016). This recommends accurately recognizing those violators who are approved for longer-prison sentences as well as distracting others into punitory substitutes. Also with selective incapacitation can lessen the numerous of inmates down to more controllable stages. It give notice to make su