INSTRUCTION: Answer Any 3 Questions


1.         ‘Discourse Analysis is generally viewed as language above the sentence or clause’. Discuss                                                                                                      (23marks).

2.         Discuss the concept of cohesion and coherence.                                         (8marks)

Use the text below to explain the concept of cohesion and coherence. (15 marks)

Fighting erupted in  the House of Representatives on Tuesday when   seven governors loyal to the New Peoples Democratic Party visited  the House in Abuja.A member of the House  from Bayelsa State, Mr. Henry Ofongo, was punched and shoved repeatedly by his colleagues for daring to  oppose  the visit. His  jacket  was pulled off  by some members.Most of the members who crowded Ofongo, were from Kano State, including Mr. Aminu Suleiman, Mr. Baballe Murktar, Mr. Ali Madakaki and Mr. Ado Dogoa.

Mr. Dakuku Peterside and Andrew Uchendu, both from Rivers State, also shoved Ofongo, preventing him from moving close to the high table.In the ensuing fracas, other members , who were in solidarity with Ofongo, attempted to throw chairs.One of the lawmakers, who lifted a chair but was prevented from throwing it, was Mr. Ini Udoka from Akwa Ibom State.

Mr. Emmanuel Okon, also from Akwa Ibom State, joined the fighting on the side of Ofongo.Udoka and Okon, like Afongo,  are  pro- Bamanga Tukur-led  National Working Committee of the PDP lawmakers.

The governors in the New PDP that visited the lawmakers were  Aliyu Wamakko (Sokoto); Babangida Aliyu (Niger); Rabiu Kwankwaso (Kano); Rotimi Amaechi (Rivers); Sule Lamido (Jigawa); Murtala Nyako (Adamawa); and Abdul-Fatai Ahmed (Kwara).

They arrived the House  in company with the National Chairman of the New PDP, Alhaji Abubakar Baraje.The Speaker of the House, Mr. Aminu Tambuwal, and other principal officers received them in  Room 0.28.

Other principal officers in attendance were the Deputy Speaker, Mr. Emeka Ihedioha; the Majority Leader, Mrs. Mulikat Akande-Adeola; the Chief Whip, Mr. Ishaka Bawa;  the Deputy Leader, Mr. Leo Ogor; and  the Deputy Whip, Mr. Murktar Ahmed.

As Baraje was introduced and asked to state the purpose of their visit, Afongo stormed the venue with  Betty Apiafi (Rivers); Bethel Amadi (Imo); Kingsley Chinda (Rivers); Bitrus Kaze (Plateau).

Afongo shouted “point of order”, “point of order” and charged in the direction of the high table in a bid to register his protest. He said the meeting must not hold because he did not believe that many of the people at the venue were PDP members.

But, the pro-Baraje members stopped him, shoving and throwing punches in the process. Afongo too responded with punches.

(Culled from The Punch, September 18, 2013)

3.         Identify the Themes and Rhemes in the extract below. (23marks)

Soursop fruit is rich in fiber and vitamins. The content of dietary fiber in soursop reached 3.3 g per 100 g of fruit flesh. Consumption of 100 g of meat soursop fruit can meet 13 percent of the daily fiber requirement. Vitamins are the most dominant in soursop fruit is vitamin C, which is around 20 mg per 100 grams of fruit flesh. Requirement of vitamin C per person per day (ie 60 mg) can be met only by consuming 300 grams of meat soursop fruit.


Fiber is very good to help digestion and detoxification, while vitamin C is an antioxidant that is very good for boosting the immune system and slow the aging process (stay young). Soursop fruit contains very little fat (0.3 g/100 g), so it is good for health.


Soursop also contains phosphorus and calcium, respectively 27 and 14 mg per 100 g. Both minerals are important for the formation of bone mass that allows you to build strong bones and prevent osteoporosis. Soursop excellence lies in the content of sodium (sodium) is low (14 mg per 100 g), but high in potassium (potash), which is 278 mg per 100 g. Comparison of high potassium and sodium is very good for preventing hypertension.


4.         Fill the gap with the appropriate answer. (2marks each)


i. The primary medium of communication is ______ and _____

ii. The oldest form of language use is _____

iii. _____ is used in drama to know the thought of a character.

iv. _____ developed ethno-methodological approach.

v. ______ is a unit of conversation that contains an exchange of one turn each by

two speakers.

vi. The proponent of ethnography of communication is ________

vii.______ isthe smallest unit of the discourse structure.

viii. ‘Mary came here yesterday; she gave me some money.” ‘She’ is _____


ix. The omission of lexical item that is recoverable from the linguistic context of a

text is        _______

x. Another word for repetition is called ______

xi. Another word for logical implication is ______.

xii. ‘Avoid ambiguity’ is under the _____ maxim.

5.         Use the conversation below to illustrate your understanding of Grice’s Cooperative     Principle. (23 marks)

Emeka: Where’s Bulus?

Adiza: The control room or the science lab.


Ade: When are you coming home?

Adiza: I will codify that question to my superiors and respond at such a time as an adequate answer is preparable.


Ibrahim: You really love me?

Emeka: I like Ferris wheels, and college football, and things that go real fast.


Adiza: A lot of people are depending on you.

Ibrahim: Thanks, that really takes the pressure off.

You can get the soft copy for this course (2014 – to date) at a little token or the exam summary answers for this course from 08039407882

Exam summary sample below

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