ENT306 TMA

Q1 The lunch bell at school or in a factory follows what learning theory?
Skinner’s operant conditioning
Pavlov’s classical conditioning
Social learning theory
Cognitive conditioning

Q2 The work of Ivan Pavlov and B.F. Skinner was in which area of learning theory?
Behavioural conditioning
Social learning
Cognitive discovery
Cognitive conditioning

Q3 The acquisition of knowledge or skill through study, practice, or experience is
selective perception
education
learning
training

Q4 In attribution theory, the criterion that is used to explain whether a person’s behaviour fits with other behaviours is called
distinctiveness
consistency
consensus
closure

Q5 What is an assumed explanation of why people behave as they do, based on our observations and inferences, called?
An assumption
An expectancy
A selective perception
An attribution

Q6 A common form of perceptual distortion by attributing one’s own thoughts, feelings, attitudes, and traits to others is called
stereotyping
the halo effect
projection
transformation

Q7 Perception is the selection, organisation, and _____________ of sensory data.
assimilation
interpretation
understanding
comprehension

Q8 Donna Bruce gave a subordinate an overly favourable performance appraisal because Donna placed too much weight in her evaluation on one outstanding characteristic of her subordinate. Which error did Donna commit?
The halo effect
The diablo effect.
Projection
Stereotyping

Q9 The fact that people tend to focus on things that fit their frame of reference is called
Selective distortion
Selective bias
Selective perception
Stereotyping

Q10 Which concept has to do with processing incomplete information we receive?
Closure
Figure-ground
Selection
Composition

Q11 Concepts of classification, figure-ground, and closure relate to what part of the perceptual process?
The perceived
The setting
Organisation
Attention

Q12 People tend to notice what is ________ to them
obvious
dangerous
important
close

Q13 The selection, organisation, and interpretation of sensory data is called
aptitude
ability
perception
awareness

Q14 Which is a true statement?
People who lack either the ability or the aptitude to perform a job will likely fail and feel dissatisfied
Those who have the aptitude but not the ability to perform a certain job can learn to do so
Too much ability for the job can be a problem
All of the above

Q15 What is the capacity to learn an ability called?
Ability attainment
Aptitude
Talent
Trait

Q16 What is the capacity to perform physical and intellectual tasks called?
Ability
Aptitude.
Talent
Trait.

Q17 Psychological contracts
are dynamic; they change over time
are satisfying if perceived as fair, to both the individual and the organisation
can be changed at the initiative of either party
All of the above

Q18 What is true of the psychological contract?
It is a written document
It is a set of expectations the employee has about the job
If it is unfulfilled, the individual will not be satisfied
B and C only.

Q19 The set of expectations an employee has about contributions and rewards on the job is called the
psychological contract
employment contract
employment dissonance test
psychological fallacy

Q20 The person-job fit describes how well the abilities and motives of the individual fit the
job demands and rewards offered by the organisation
salary and experience required
profession required.
goals and aspirations of the individual

Q21 Satisfaction is defined as positive feelings people have about an organisation whether as a/an
supplier, employee, customer, or regulator.
employer, customer, regulator, or supplier
investor or stockbroker
Neither A nor B

Q22 Diversity in the workplace is
not a factor-immigrants are absorbed by the “melting pot” culture rather quickly
stable and unlikely to increase
accelerating
declining faster than ever before in the nation’s history

Q23 During the last quarter of the 20th century, racial minorities and women made considerable progress in gaining employment access into the corporate world. Therefore, the challenge for the early 21st century is _________________________.
granting equal opportunities so that everyone is able to reach his/her full potential
guaranteeing entry to organisations at senior ranks
learning to accept the benefits of diversity
promoting diversity quotas at each level within organisations

Q24 As social-technological-economic changes take on greater specificity four thematic issues affect most managerial practices regardless of the industry. Which of the following is not such an issue?
Global business
Ethical behaviour
Profit motive
Human diversity.

Q25 What is the relationship between satisfaction and productivity, as suggested by research?
High satisfaction leads to high productivity.
Productivity does not influence satisfaction.
Moderate satisfaction results in low productivity
Productivity often leads to satisfaction.

Q26 Revitalization involves ________ the strategies, resources, technology, and skills of the organisation.
focusing
categorizing
formalizing
renewing

Q27 Research indicates the correlation between job satisfaction and productivity is _____________.
a cause and effect relationship
high
low
almost impossible to measure

Q28 Doing the right things is referred to as ____________.
effectiveness
efficiency
productivity
profitability

Q29 Productivity is a ratio of outputs (products or services) to ____________.
profits generated
sales price
inputs consumed
behaviour effectiveness

Q30 Governance policies, rules, as well as authority structures apply to which key resource element of the organisation?
Technology
Organisation
Organisational culture
People

Q31 The five-variable model showing change options for using resource elements to transform organisational systems is intended to
modify the structure of the real organisation
eliminate the conflict in an organisation
simplify the complexity of a real organisation to emphasize interconnected elements
amplify the differences among organisational subsystems

Q32 Adding robotics to an assembly line is an example of transforming the resource element of ________.
tasks
organisational culture
people
technology

Q33 A manager redesigning a job to make it physically easier for workers to perform is an example of transforming which key resource element?
Technology
Tasks
Organisational culture
People

Q34 Who would be most likely to use the roles of figurehead, spokesperson, and negotiator?
A sales manager
A production manager
A product development manager
A first-line supervisor

Q35 Organisational behaviour allows us to be more prepared to cope with the challenges of modern management and life in organisations. What do the practical applications of behavioural research tell managers?
Why humans are inherently ill-suited to the workplace
How to improve the odds that their influence will be effective
That common sense is the best guide for managers
How to program employees for peak performance through direct, precise application of theoretical models

Q36 From what root discipline(s) does the study of organisational behaviour borrow its core concepts?
Psychology
Sociology
Anthropology
All of the above

Q37 The lower a manager is in the organisational hierarchy, the more important his/her _______ skills are
human
conceptual
technical
interpersonal

Q38 According to Mintzberg, into which role is the manager typically drawn involuntarily?
Entrepreneur
Disturbance handler
Resource allocator
Negotiator

Q39 When a manager makes a decision to convert production operations to a new technology, which of Mintzberg’s decisional roles is she performing?
Negotiator
Resource allocator
Disturbance handler
Disseminator

Q40 Mintzberg’s roles of figurehead, leader, and liaison are what he calls the roles.
interpersonal
informational
decisional
None of the above

Q41 What interpersonal role is being performed by the manager who is awarding a gold watch to a retiring employee?
Figurehead
Liaison
Spokesperson
Disseminator

Q42 The rational heroic manager plans, organizes, coordinates, and
watches
reprimands
represents
controls

Q43 As opposed to closed systems, open systems
interact with the environment
are more complex
are more difficult to control
All of the above

Q44 The rational heroic view of what managers (as planners, organizers) owes its origins to the early writings of:
Henri Fayol
Peter Drucker
Henry Mintzberg
Adam Smith

Q45 A corporate lawyer negotiating with a government agency regarding compliance with an existing law is an example of a professional working for an organisation that is
a closed system.
an efficient system
an open system
a regulated system.

Q46 Systems that operate without interference from outside their boundaries are called system
isolated
mechanistic
structured
closed

Q47 The Red Cross is essentially what type of system?
Efficient.
Social.
Legalistic
Benevolent

Q48 Which of the following is a system?
An organisation.
An automobile
A toilet
A community.

Q49 To business firms, the Environmental Protection Agency is an example of what type of organisation?
A vendor
A regulator
A controller
A shareholder

Q50 Definable groups of people who have an economic and/or social interest in the organisation are called
employees
managers
stakeholders
linking pins

Q51 When the chief executive officer of Hewlett-Packard explains to employees that the viability of the company depends on their continuing to improve and develop new products, she is articulating a:
Superordinate goal
Behavioural threat.
Mission statement.
Functional strategy.

Q52 The highest level of striving for the organisation is articulated by
superordinate goals
operational strategies
functional policies
standard operating procedures

Q53 A well-framed mission statement
defines specific performance objectives for the organisation.
delineates which managers are responsible for what activities
gives direction to a sense of purpose
defines the core technology on which the organisation is dependent

Q54 An organisation’s mission is
the fundamental purpose of an organisation
articulated in such a way that it defines the business of the enterprise.
a concept for unifying the efforts of organisational members
all of the above

Q55 Which must be accomplished first by the entrepreneur or leader?
The design of a rational organisation structure.
Generating profits.
Making viable the concept for which the organisation was founded.
Establishing policies that assure consistency of activities.

Q56 According to Peter Drucker, where does the purpose of a business organisation find its meaning?
With top management.
In each and every employee
Within the organisational culture
Outside the organisation.

Q57 Which of the following typifies an organisation?
The First National Bank
The United Methodist Church
The Local Primary School
All of the above.

Q58 The McDonalds restaurant chain was created to provide fast access to prepared food of consistent quality, at reasonable prices, in a clean and cheerful eating environment. This exemplifies:
An organisation being created to serve the needs of a particular customer segment or group of people
How an organisation can influence customers to buy its products.
The principle that demand can be created if an organisation is just persistent enough
The fact that service organisations need not concern themselves with customer needs to the extent that product manufacturers must.

Q59 Organisational success in providing a service or a product depends on
doing product development faster than anyone else
being the cheapest in the market
having the first product or service in the market place
the product or service being valued by a segment of society

Q60 What must entrepreneurs and leaders learn in order to have a successful organisation?
How to control people and manipulate organisational systems
How to think strategically, influence people, develop organisational systems
How to manage technical details and use current business jargon
How to read balance sheets and income statements.

Q61 The method of research that gathers data about perceptions, feelings, opinions through interviews and questionnaires in their actual work setting is known as
Case study
Field survey
Field experiment
Laboratory experiment

Q62 An in depth study on a single organisation using a variety of data collection methods is known as
Case study
Field survey
Field experiment
Laboratory experiment

Q63 The use of theory to guide systematic, empirical research from which generalisations can be made to influence applications is known as
Social science approach
Scientific management approach
Open systems approach
Scientific method

Q64 The study of organisational behaviour includes
Diplomacy, scientology, psychology
Sociology, psychology, anthropology
Socioeconomics, philosophy, anthropology
Physiology, society, anthropology

Q65 The whole is greater than the sum of the parts and that the parts or subsystems are related_x000D_ to each other and to the whole are emphasised in
Motivation theory
Contingency theory
Systems theory
Administrative theory

Q66 The analysis of a manager as a social systems approach was proposed by
Chester Barnard
Elton Mayo
Henri Fayol
Max Weber

Q67 Who defined human motivation as “the study of ultimate human goals
Weber
Maslow
Taylor
Fayol

Q68 The unintentional biasing of research outcomes due to the possibility that simply paying attention to the experimental subjects causes their behaviour to change is known as the
Mayo effect
Cause and effect
Hawthorne effect
Law and effect

Q69 The Hawthorne experiments were conducted by
Elton Mayo
Max Weber
Charles Handy
Henri Fayol

Q70 Bureaucracy theory means
the development of management functions and administrative principles
a scientific study of work
a shared responsibility of authority and delegation
a hierarchy of command based on a rational-legal authority structure

Q71 Bureaucracy theory was proposed by
Weber
Fayol
Taylor
Handy

Q72 Division of work, authority and responsibility, unity of command were proposed as part of
Weber
Fayol
Taylor
Woodward

Q73 Ensuring that everything is carried out according to plan is part of the process of
Planning
Controlling
Organising
Co-ordinating

Q74 Studying the future and arranging the means for dealing with it is part of the process of
Organising
Commanding
Controlling
Planning

Q75 The first management principles were developed by
Frederick Taylor
Charles Handy
Henri Fayol
Victor Meldrew

Q76 The founder of scientific management was
Frederick Taylor
Henri Fayol
Elton Mayo
Chester Barnard

Q77 The observation of people at work that would reveal the one best way to do a task is known
Scientific management
Classical management
Human relations management
Creative management

Q78 “It all depends on the variables of a situation” best describes the
Classical approach
Human relations approach
Systems approach
Contingency approach

Q79 The main schools of management thought are:
Classical, human resources, systems, contingency
Classical, human resources, systems, contextual
Classical, human relations, systems, contingency
Creative, human relations, systems, contingency

Q80 The everyday tasks of management include:
Planning and creativity
Planning and leading
Publicity and loss adjustment
plotting and leading

 

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