Q1 Which is not a defence for Case Study Method being Scientific in Nature?
Generating hypothesis in case studies
Testing hypotheses in the case study method
Generalization of case study findings
Publication of Findings

Q2 Which alternative is devoid of Main Steps in Case Study
Selection of a case for investigation and Second Round Investigation
Analysis of first round data and Data Collection
Introduction of alternative measures and Follow-up activities
Determination of Ideal Situation and Publication of Findings

Q3 Identify an item that’s not a characteristic of the Case Study Method
Idealogical bias
Continuity in investigation
Intellectual synthesis:

Q4 Naturalists have made efforts to fix certain standards to check the trustworthiness of the investigation. Identify the oddity in this

Q5 In terms of procedures, naturalistic research is quite unique: Which attribute is not part of the uniqueness?
Holistic Approach
Rests on prescribed Theory
No a Prior Theory
No Pre-specified design of study

Q6 Naturalistic inquiry does not the steps in an ordinary scientific inquiry; identify any pair among the factors that shape it
Rationalization and Analysis
Efficiency and Effectiveness
Good and Bad
Multiple Realities and Value Systems

Q7 What’s Naturalistic Inquiry?
Study of creation and creatures in their natural habitats
All investigations about social and educational phenomena conducted in natural settings
All investigations about social and educational phenomena conducted in detached natural settings
Any other study not conducted in nature

Q8 What is common among these four research metheds: Phylosophical, Historical, Naturalistic and Case Study?
They all fall under Qualitative Research
They all fall under Quantitative Research
They are all Empirical Research
None of A-C

Q9 Which is not a main feature of Historical Research?
It aims at developing knowledge of past events within a particular framework of time and social �?? political, economic and cultural context
Data concerning the past events are available through different sources
Delineating events of the past, discarding them and use comtemporary events
Is conducted based on the analysis of all the known information related to the research problem.

Q10 Isolate an alternative that does not conform to one of the steps in Philosophical Inquiry
Identification of appropriate topic
Defence of reportage
Reporting the study
Collection of data

Q11 How would you not describe Historical Research?
Highlights some causal relationships of past events and unearth the background for the purpose of understanding the social phenomena both past and the present
Involves searching for the amount of what happened in the past
Means the studies of the past happenings
Includes the studies of present phenomema with a retrospect or past mindset

Q12 How would you describe Philosophical Research (Studies)?
Aims at the assessment of the status of knowledge through analysis of meaning and relationships of different concepts and exposition of underlying assumptions
Aims at the assessment of the status of knowledge through analysis of thoughts and outcomes of different concepts and exposition of underlying assumptions
Aims at the assessment of the status of knowledge through analysis of situations and positions of different concepts and exposition of underlying assumptions
Aims at the assessment of the status of knowledge through investigation and reportings of different concepts and exposition of underlying assumptions

Q13 Which pair is not element of Critical Social Research?
Reality and Superstructure
Abstraction and Totality
Essence and Praxis
Ideology and Structure

Q14 The following are the main features of empirical scientific research except

Q15 Say which is nor a Research Process or Method
Critical research

Q16 Point out the alternative that is not a Type of Variable

Q17 Identify which statement that fails to describe Hypothesis
It is a firm answer to the research question
A tentative but intelligent guess posited to direct your thinking toward the solution of the problem
It is a tentative proposition set forth a possible explanation for an occurrence
a provisional conjecture to assist in guiding the investigation of a problem

Q18 Which question would Significance of the Study not answer?
What is the use of the study?
What are the practical values of the study?
Who are the beneficiaries of the findings
Why is the research being carried out?

Q19 What are Assumptions in Research?
These are what the Supervisor directs and should be assumed by the researcher
These are the same as Hypotheses
These are statement of what the researcher believes to be facts but cannot be verified
These are guides to the research work

Q20 What does Delimitation do in Research?
It breaks the boundaries of research
It gives you the boundaries of the study
It creates a limit on what can be done
It sets a limit of your involvement

Q21 Identify an alternative which cannot be included as a component which help in shaping and refining the problem in order to provide a focus and manageable scope for the research
Constructing Hypotheses
Identifying the problem
Constructing the Research Design
Marketing research finding

Q22 Which alternative is not a principle for defining the research problem
Statement of the limits or scope of study.
Analysis of the major problem or problems in terms of sub-ordinate problems
Indication of the financial implications of the proposed study
Statement of limitations of technique employed in the investigation

Q23 In what manner are Problems in research not to be stated?
As a declarative statement
As a question and an answer
As a question or questions
As a statement followed by a series of propositions

Q24 In selecting a topic, all effort should be made to ensure that it meets the following conditions except
It is of a general nature
It is not too lengthy
Falls within the discipline (i.e. in time and space)
Is not a duplication of an existing work?

Q25 You should painstakingly select your problem of study upon these considerations
Novelty (newness) of the problem
Your interest in the problem
Your special qualification to handle the problem
All the alternatives

Q26 Isolate the alternative that is not a characteristic of a problem in research
It should represent a moral or ethnic position indicating bias or feeling of preference
It should ask about a relationship between two or more variables
It should be possible to collect data on it so as to answer the question(s) asked
It should be stated clearly and unambiguously, usually in question form

Q27 Mention what Observation is not used for
Measuring classroom process variables
Measuring damages following auto crashes
Measuring the extent of programme implementation
Identifying typical pathways to customer services

Q28 Eliminate the alternative that is not a characteristic of a good Observation
Observations are expertly recorded
Observers separate the facts from the interpretation of facts
Observers are subjective
Observation is carefully planned.

Q29 Name the two types of Observational Technique
Participatory and non-participatory
Participant and non-participant
Observational and non-observational
Qualitative and Quantitative

Q30 Which type of research incorporates the observational technique?
All the alternatives

Q31 What do you understand by Observational Technique?
When you use a specially designed evaluation instrument to collect observational data
When the researcher is watching the situation
When the researcher interviews the respondents
When interview is not feasible

Q32 Define Observation as a data collection technique
It is the act of looking out for and recording the presence or absence of verbal behaviour of an individual or group of individuals
It is the act of looking out for and recording the presence or absence of non-verbal behaviour of an individual or group of individuals
It is the act of looking out for and recording the presence or absence of both verbal and non-verbal behaviour of an individual or group of individuals
None of the alternatives is correct

Q33 Why is interview often regarded as being superior to other data-collecting?
It is less expensive
People prefer to talk than to write, especially when it comes to controversial issues
It take less time and effort
They contain tougher questions

Q34 It is ideal to use questions or statements in interview? Why not?
Clarify points on which there are uncertainties
Prompt the interviewee to talk freely and coherently.
To make simple matter ambiguous
Congratulate the subject on the quality of his response, the originality of his ideas and so on

Q35 In order to obtain valid interview results the researcher should do the following except
ask questions which compel the subject to give the reply which you want to have
listen to the respondent in a friendly and patient but intelligent critical manner
refrain from showing an authoritarian attitude
avoid leading or prompting the subject towards certain answers.

Q36 Steps in arrangement of Interview include the following except
You should set up the interview plan used in advance
You will prepare and send the set of questions which you will ask to the interviewee in advance
Sort for permission to tape-recorded the interview
Ensure you meet all prospective respondents before due date for interview

Q37 Mention the one that is not a type of Interview
Interviewer guided approach
Open or Variable Response Interview
Closed or Fixed Response Interview
Informal Conversation Interview.

Q38 What distinctive similarity exist between the questionnaire and the interview as information as information gathering tools?
Both are constructed at the same time and place
Both are handled by the same persons
Both them seek and elicit information by asking questions
Both contain the same questions

Q39 Identify the method not suitable for administering questionnaires
Using consultants
Administering the questionnaires personally.
Using research assistants:
Mailing the questionnaires.

Q40 Which is not a reaseon for pilot-testing the questionnaire?
To ensure that all questions and instructions are clear
To enable the researcher to remove any items which do not yield usable data
To enable you include any item deemed necessary to yield some relevant data.
To ensure the unusability of the instrument

Q41 Every instrument used for data collection in research should be trial tested or pilot tested. Why?
To meet the supervisor’s demand
To save time in carrying out the research
To find out how long it takes the respondents to complete
To use the results to find the unreliability of the instrument

Q42 How would you improve the questionnaire items?
Ask as many questions as to effectively occupy the respondent
All statements or questions should be clear, simple and direct.
Every slang terminology or technical jargon should be used where applicable
Use double negative as they can cancell out each other

Q43 Identify the main types of questionnaires based on two basic types of question formats.
Closed-ended and open-ended
close end and opened end
Broad-based and narrow-based
True and false

Q44 The following are steps in developing and using questionnaire except
Identifying the programmes objectives and specific information to be obtained
Select a response format
Selectiong and enumerating the respondents
Writing the items/questions

Q45 Which is not a characteristic of a good questionnaire?
A questionnaire deals with a significant topic
It is attractive in appearance.
Instructions are clear and complete
The questions must cover a very broad area of study

Q46 Which is not a fact in contructing a questionnaire?
Each respondent should receive a different questionnaire for the study
Ensure that the terms or questions are structured in good forms.
Each question must be easily understood by the respondents
Every item must be checked for clarity and relevance

Q47 What is Questionnaire?
It is a format for writing the research report
Generally a form containing some questions which the respondents fill out without any help or comment from the researcher
It is the questions meant to be answered
It is the Interviewer in a face-to-face interview with the researcher

Q48 What factors are you supposed to consider before choosing a suitable method of data collection?
Purpose, problem and hypothesis of the study
The accuracy desired of the study
Time required for the study
A, B and C

Q49 Identify the two types of data used in research
Primary and Variable
Secondary and Variables
Primary and Secondary
Large and Small

Q50 Data collected should show reference to the following except
Stated hypotheses
Time of carrying out the research

Q51 Which of these statements is correct as it relates to data collection?
Data gathering devices need not closely relate to the design of the study
The data to be collected determines the design
All data gathering devices should be closely related to the design of the study
All the research is entitled to collect data on the research being carried out

Q52 What is the purpose of collecting Data?
To test your hypotheses in order to draw your inferences and conclusions.
In order to refute the stated hypothesis
It is meant to identify all the characters involved in the research work
To build a model for the research work

Q53 Any information which comes in numbers, figures, measures or quantities is said to be

Q54 What is Data in Research?
The reasearcher
Individuals who participate in research

Q55 How many levels are there in Theorizing?

Q56 Identify the third Level of Theorizing
Descriptive theories and taxonomies
Hypothesis formation:

Q57 Which alternative is not a purpose of theory in the development of science?
It summarized and puts the existing knowledge in a particular area in order
It provides a provisional explanation for observe events and relationships
It acts an conclusive answer to the research question
It permits the prediction of the occurrence of phenomena

Q58 “Fact without theory or theory without facts lack significance” What’s your take on this statement?
Not true in all cases
Not applicable in research

Q59 Which key word or phrase is not important in defining Theory?
purpose of predicting
systematic view
relationship among variables

Q60 Which statement is correct?
Scientific enquiry starts with facts and then moves towards theorizing.
Scientific enquiry starts with theory and moves towards facts
Facts are not normally used in organized form
Scientists don’t usually gather facts through empirical investigations.

Q61 To understand the natural phenomena, which is not one of the three recognized basic steps?
Accurate description
Collection and collation of data
Explaining the specified conditions necessary to obtain the phenomenon in order to attain easy prediction of the phenomenon
Organizing the available evidence supporting the phenomenon

Q62 Scientific inquiries have some assumptions which are represented by certain key words except.

Q63 Which is not a subsidiary step in integrating research into existing knowledge of subject?
Dismantle existing knowldge in the area
Review of research of experiences
Manipulation of factors
Defining of variable

Q64 List the sources of knowledge for research purposes
Custom and tradition
Personal experience
All of the above

Q65 Which is not one of the steps of activities making up the process of scientific thinking employed in research?
Location and definition of a problem
The formulation of hypotheses
The assignment of values to data
The collection of additional data

Q66 What is the broad goal of science?
To understand natural phenomena
To make new discoveries
For invention purpose
To create life

Q67 Which is not a step in the Scientific Approach to Research?
Certain phenomena are observed
A design developed to test the hypothesis
The hypothesis is unverified nor refuted
A more or less formal hypothesis is derived

Q68 Which of the following is not a Purpose of Research?
Problem Building
Search for Truth
Problem Solving

Q69 How can Precision be achieved in Research?
Through mathematical equation
Through statistical finding
Through words rather than numbers
All of the above

Q70 The MAJOR Characteristics of Research include the following except

Q71 Which attribute of Research do you disagree with?
Research does not need expertise
Research demands accurate observation and description
Research involves the quest for answers to unresolved problems
Research is carefully recorded and reported

Q72 Which alternative is not a step in Scientific Inquiry?
Definition of the problem
Statement of the hypothesis
Organization of seminars and workshops
Collection and analysis of data

Q73 Identify which alternative that’s not a characteristic of Research
Research requires team work always
Research is guided by specific research questions, problems or hypothesis
Research accepts certain critical assumptions
Research requires the collection and interpretation of data

Q74 These are other classifications of research except
Correlational research
Action research
Semi-Quasi Experimental Resesrch

Q75 If we classify Research based on Goal or Objective, we have
Quantitative and and Qualitative
Basic and Applied
Fundamental and Quantitative
Qualitative and Applied

Q76 How can Verifiability be achieved in Research?
Replicating the study on a different sample
Analyzing the same data on the same sample through alternative analytical tools or statistical methods
Both A and B
None of A and B

Q77 Which of the following is not a characteristic of Research?
Research requires a clear articulation of a goal
Research requires a specific plan of procedure
Research doesn’t always call for originality of work
Research originates with a question or problem

Q78 According to Leedy (1997) the following is not research except
A systematic process for finding solution to a problem
Mere information gathering
A catch word used to get information.
Mere transformation of facts from one location to another

Q79 Which is not a goal of Research?
To discover general principles of behaviour
To explain, predict and control events in everyday life situations
To interprete behaviour
Just for academic exercise

Q80 Research is the way in which we acquire dependable and useful information about
Abstract things
Everyday life process
Very difficult problem
Just anything

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