NATIONAL BUSINESS AND TECHNICAL EXAMINATIONS BOARD Biology 2005

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    campusflava
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    NATIONAL BUSINESS AND TECHNICAL EXAMINATIONS BOARD
    2005 MAY/JUNE NBC/NTC EXAMINATIONS
    006-1 BIOLOGY (ESSAY)

    PART I – INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY
    1. (a) Mention FIVE beneficial uses of bacteria.

    1. The decaying of dead organic material into humus which serve as plant nutrients/purification.
    2. The production of composite manure.
    3. Conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to nitrates through ammonia and nitrites, demystification of nitrates.
    4. Vinegar making from alcohol.
    5. Tanning of leather
    6. Pitting of flax or jute
    7. Curing of tobacco
    8. Butter/Cheese/Cream making
    9. Making vitamin B and K in large intestine of man
    10. Digestion of cellulose in ruminants
    11. Turning of sewage into fertilizer
    12. Vaccine making by using weakened bacteria
    13. Production of biogas

    (b) State THREE places each where:

    i. Viruses may be found
    Air, Soil, water, saliva, blood plasma, semen. cells
    ii. Bacteria may be found
    Air, soil, water, dirt under the fingernail, in the body of living things, toilet/latrine, compost, gutter.

    (c) State briefly the various methods that can be adopted in the prevention of viral disease in:

    i. Animals

    1. Stocking the farm with healthy animals
    2. Feeding the animals with clean food
    3. Keeping the animal in clean and tidy habnitat
    4. Vaccinating the animals against viral disease
    5. Raising disease resistant species or animals
    6. Isolation of infected animals
    7. Use of quarantine services.

    ii. Plants

    1. Using the right planting distance, method and season.
    2. Removing and destroying infected plants
    3. spraying plants with pesticides at the right time
    4. growing disease resistant crops
    5. planting healthy seeds, seedlings and stem cuttings
    6. control of vectors (e.g. in cassava mosaic)

    PART II – FLOWERING AND SOIL SCIENCE

    2. (a) Describe the external features of a named monocot-yledonous flowering
    plants.

    Oil palm tree, maize, rice, spear grass, sugarcane, onion, plantain, banana,
    pineapple, bamboo, arrowroot, cocoyam.
    Description
    1. roots are numerous, long and slender/fibrous
    2. all the roots arise at the same point at the base of the stem
    3. stem is long and cylindrical
    4. stem shows distinct/clear nodes and internodes
    5. stem show no branding, sometime covered by sheathing leaf bases.
    6. leaf is long and narrow/slender/linear, with or without sheathing leaf
    base.
    7. leaf is parallel – veined
    8. flowers are small and numerous, usually dull coloured, not sw3eet
    smelling.
    9. pendant stamens, feathery stigma on flowers.

    (b) What is the role of green algae in an acquatic habitat?

    1. primary producer
    2. removes excess carbon dioxide
    3. returns oxygen to the habitat
    4. pollutes water

    3. (a) Define the terms:

    1. Photosynthesis
    The process by which green plants manufacture carbohydrates from water and
    carbon dioxide using sunlight and giving off oxygen as a by-product.
    2. Respiration
    A process in which oxygen is used to break down organic matter to release
    energy in all living cells, while water and carbon dioxide are released as waste
    products.

    (b) What are the differences between photosynthesis and respiration?

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