Q1 _____ may be stages of progressive impairment following different types of insults.
Q2 _______ is a special form of necrosis usually seen in immune reactions involving blood vessels.
Q3 ______ is encountered most often in foci of tuberculous infection.
Q4 ______ occurs in a limb, generally the lower leg, that has lost its blood supply.
Q5 __________ is characterized by digestion of the dead cells, resulting in transformation of the tissue into a liquid viscous mass.
Q6 Mitochondria can be damaged by increases of _______,
Reactive oxygen species
All of the above
Q7 ______ examines the alterations in specialized organs and tissues that are responsible for disorders that involve these organs.
Q8 ______ is a form of necrosis in which the architecture of dead tissues is preserved for a span of at least some days
Q9 The acute-phase response consists of several clinical and pathologic changes:
All of the above
Q10 In the practice of medicine the importance of______ is that it can sometimes be inappropriately triggered or poorly controlled, and is thus the cause of tissue injury in many disorders.
Q11 ____ designed to rid the organism of both the initial cause of cell injury and the consequences of such injury.
Q12 In response to increased hemodynamic loads, the heart muscle becomes enlarged. This is an example of ______,
Q13 If cells become compromised by mutations that affect essential cellular constituents, a sequence of events follows that is termed__________,
Q14 These are reversible functional and structural responses to more severe physiologic stresses and some pathologic stimuli Except_______,
Q15 There are ________ aspects of a disease process that form the core of pathology.
Q16 The mechanism of the development of disease is_____,
Q17 _______ is concerned with the reactions of cells and tissues to abnormal stimuli.
Q18 Traditionally the study of pathology is divided into____,
Q19 By use of molecular, microbiologic, immunologic, and morphologic techniques, pathology explains______,
Signs and Symptoms
Q20 Disease process is better understood if events at the cellular level are well-understood, hence the term_______,
Q21 The concentration of Hcl in gastric juice isâ?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦. mEq/L
Q22 The absorption of vitaminâ?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦. occurs in the terminal ileum.
Q23 The cranial nerveâ?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦.supplies the parotid gland.
Q24 The parasympathetic fiber of cranial nerveâ?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦…7 supplies some submaxillary and sublingual
Q25 The parotid gland producedâ?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦. of the salivary secretion.
Q26 The submaxillary gland producesâ?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦. secretion
Q27 There areâ?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦. types of secreting cells in the acini
Q28 â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦..regulates aurocaudal flow of GIT contents.
Q29 The alimentary tract is divided into functional compartment byâ?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦…sphincters.
Q30 Theâ?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦. enters the brain and CSF is hydrated to form H2CO3.
Q31 The central chemoreceptors are located on the floor of theâ?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦… ventricle in the medulla oblongata
Q32 The changes in the chemical composition of blood are detectedâ?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦. groups of chemoreceptors
Q33 The three main substances involved are CO2,â?¦â?¦… and O2
Q34 Theâ?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦… centre sends inhibitory impulses to the apneustic centre
Q35 The neural control of respiration can be sub-divided intoâ?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦.. main types
Q36 voluntary control of breathing is carried out under the control of theâ?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦..
Q37 Carbondioxide is transported in the blood inâ?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦.forms
Q38 The pressure of PCO2 in the tissues isâ?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦
Q39 2,3-Disphosphoglycerate is an organophosphate that is created in erythrocytes duringâ?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦.
Q40 The formation of a bicarbonate ion will release aâ?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦. into the plasma
Q41 A reduction in the total binding capacity of haemoglobin to oxygen due to reduced pH is called______,
Q42 The factor that can cause oxygen- hemoglobin dissociation curve to shift to the left include________,
Q43 The factor that can cause oxygen- hemoglobin dissociation curve to shift to the right include_________,
Q44 The PO2 of pulmonary capillary blood when fully oxygenated is________,
Q45 100ml of blood at full saturation usually carry _______ of oxygen
Q46 Each gram of hemoglobin is capable of carrying _______ of oxygen at full saturation.
Q47 Oxygen is transported in _____ forms in the blood
Q48 Oxygen transport consists of _________ important steps
Q49 This whole mechanism of gas exchange is carried by the simple phenomenon called ________,
Q50 The process of gas exchange has ________ steps
Q51 The value of Total Lung Capasity is about_______,
Q52 The value of Functional Residual Capasity is about_______
Q53 The value of Inspiratory capacity is about_________,
Q54 The volume of air present in the lungs after a inspiratory effort is called__________,
Inspiratory Reserved Volume
Total Lung Capacity
Q55 The volume of air that moves into and out of the lungs under different conditions can be measured by ______,
Q56 The diaphragm is capable of vertical excursion of ______ depending on the depth of breathing.
2.5cm to 10cm
1.5cm to 3 cm
2.5cm to 7.5 cm
2cm to 5cm
Q57 The right bronchial artery arises from the _______ right intercostal artery.
Q58 The blood pumped into the pulmonary circulation at rest is ________,
Q59 The plasma oncotic pressure is __________ mmHg
Q60 The pulmonary circulation is a _________ pressure circulation.
Q61 _________ Is secreted by the parietal cell of the fundus
Q62 _________neutralizes the gastric acid that refluxes into the esophagus and release heart burn.
Q63 _________acts on salivary duct to cause sodium ion reabsorption in exchange for potassium ion.
Q64 During high flow rate of saliva, less time is allowed for transfer of ions and hence Na+ is_________ K+
all of the above
Q65 The saliva in the duct is_________ while the saliva in the mouth is hypotonic.
Q66 Human saliva has a pH range from_________
Q67 The secretion of saliva per day ranges from_________
Q68 The parotid gland is supplies by cranial nerve_________
Q69 The parasympathetic fiber of cranial nerve_________ supplies some part of submaxillary and sublingual glands.
Q70 _________is sensitive to osmolar changes, pH changes and chemical composition of food.
Q71 The_________plexus control secretion and local blood flow.
Q72 The plexus control GIT movement is called_________
Q73 The_________plexus is sensitive to stretch
Q74 The_________relaxes in response to appropriate stimulus so that flow can occur from one compartment to the next.
Q75 The_________regulates or maintains aurocaudal flow of GIT contents
Q76 The outer GIT plexus that lies between the longitudinal and circular layer and is called_________
Q77 The wall of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has an_________ nervous system
Q78 Decompression sickness can be avoided if the diver is made to ascend to the surface of the sea gradually over a period of _________ hours
2 to 5
3 to 5
1 to 4
2 to 4
Q79 About_________ of people suffering from decompression sickness develop pain in the joints and muscles of the legs or arms.
Q80 Cyanosis becomes noticeable when the arterial blood contains_________or more of deoxygenated haemoglobin per 100ml of blood.