NSC203 TMA

Q1 _____ may be stages of progressive impairment following different types of insults.
cell injury
cell death
Adaptation
irreversible injury

Q2 _______ is a special form of necrosis usually seen in immune reactions involving blood vessels.
Coagulative necrosis
Liquefactive necrosis
Fat necrosis
Fibrinoid necrosis

Q3 ______ is encountered most often in foci of tuberculous infection.
Coagulative necrosis
Liquefactive necrosis
Gangrenous necrosis
Caseous necrosis

Q4 ______ occurs in a limb, generally the lower leg, that has lost its blood supply.
Coagulative necrosis
Liquefactive necrosis
Gangrenous necrosis
Caseous necrosis

Q5 __________ is characterized by digestion of the dead cells, resulting in transformation of the tissue into a liquid viscous mass.
Coagulative necrosis
Liquefactive necrosis
Gangrenous necrosis
Caseous necrosis

Q6 Mitochondria can be damaged by increases of _______,
Cytosolic Ca2+
Reactive oxygen species
Oxygen deprivation
All of the above

Q7 ______ examines the alterations in specialized organs and tissues that are responsible for disorders that involve these organs.
Systemic pathology
Morphologic pathology
Molecular pathology
General pathology

Q8 ______ is a form of necrosis in which the architecture of dead tissues is preserved for a span of at least some days
Coagulative necrosis
Liquefactive necrosis
Fat necrosis
Fibrinoid necrosis

Q9 The acute-phase response consists of several clinical and pathologic changes:
Fever
Acute-phase proteins
Leukocytosis
All of the above

Q10 In the practice of medicine the importance of______ is that it can sometimes be inappropriately triggered or poorly controlled, and is thus the cause of tissue injury in many disorders.
Inflammations
Infections
Adaptations
Immune reactions

Q11 ____ designed to rid the organism of both the initial cause of cell injury and the consequences of such injury.
Inflammations
Infections
Adaptations
Immune reactions

Q12 In response to increased hemodynamic loads, the heart muscle becomes enlarged. This is an example of ______,
Adaptation
Metaplasia
Atrophy
Hypertrophy

Q13 If cells become compromised by mutations that affect essential cellular constituents, a sequence of events follows that is termed__________,
cell injury
cell death
Adaptation
irreversible injury

Q14 These are reversible functional and structural responses to more severe physiologic stresses and some pathologic stimuli Except_______,
Inflammations
Infections
Adaptations
Immune reactions

Q15 There are ________ aspects of a disease process that form the core of pathology.
Three
Four
Five
Two

Q16 The mechanism of the development of disease is_____,
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Molecular changes
Morphological changes

Q17 _______ is concerned with the reactions of cells and tissues to abnormal stimuli.
Elementary Pathology
Molecular pathology
Biochemical Pathology
General pathology

Q18 Traditionally the study of pathology is divided into____,
Three
Four
Five
Two

Q19 By use of molecular, microbiologic, immunologic, and morphologic techniques, pathology explains______,
Signs
Syndrome
Signs and Symptoms
Symptomatology

Q20 Disease process is better understood if events at the cellular level are well-understood, hence the term_______,
Tissue pathology
Cell pathology
Cellular pathophysiology
Cellular pathology

Q21 The concentration of Hcl in gastric juice is����. mEq/L
125
200
120
150

Q22 The absorption of vitamin�������. occurs in the terminal ileum.
B3
B12
B2
B6

Q23 The cranial nerve�����.supplies the parotid gland.
five
six
seven
nine

Q24 The parasympathetic fiber of cranial nerveâ?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦…7 supplies some submaxillary and sublingual
six
five
seven
four

Q25 The parotid gland produced�����. of the salivary secretion.
0.25
0.1
0.125
0.05

Q26 The submaxillary gland produces����. secretion
0.05
0.1
0.075
0.1

Q27 There are�����. types of secreting cells in the acini
two
four
six
three

Q28 ���������..regulates aurocaudal flow of GIT contents.
iliocaecal
pylorus
stenosis
.sphincters.

Q29 The alimentary tract is divided into functional compartment byâ?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦…sphincters.
6
7
4
5

Q30 The�����. enters the brain and CSF is hydrated to form H2CO3.
CO3
CO2
H+
CO

Q31 The central chemoreceptors are located on the floor of theâ?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦… ventricle in the medulla oblongata
2nd
1st
3rd
4th

Q32 The changes in the chemical composition of blood are detected�����. groups of chemoreceptors
two
three
five
four

Q33 The three main substances involved are CO2,â?¦â?¦… and O2
H-
H+
HCO3
CO

Q34 Theâ?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦â?¦… centre sends inhibitory impulses to the apneustic centre
expiratory
respiratory
pneumotaxic
carotid

Q35 The neural control of respiration can be sub-divided into�������.. main types
five
two
three
four

Q36 voluntary control of breathing is carried out under the control of the������..
medulla oblongata
cerebra cortex
motor neurons
motor cortex

Q37 Carbondioxide is transported in the blood in�����.forms
six
two
three
four

Q38 The pressure of PCO2 in the tissues is����������
40mmHg
26mmHg
36mmHg
46mmHg

Q39 2,3-Disphosphoglycerate is an organophosphate that is created in erythrocytes during��������.
glycolysis
internal respiration
lipolysis
haemolysis

Q40 The formation of a bicarbonate ion will release a������. into the plasma
ion
proton
atom
neutron

Q41 A reduction in the total binding capacity of haemoglobin to oxygen due to reduced pH is called______,
pressure effect
root effect
negative effect
roof effect

Q42 The factor that can cause oxygen- hemoglobin dissociation curve to shift to the left include________,
increase temperature
decrease acidity
increase PCO2
reduced pressure

Q43 The factor that can cause oxygen- hemoglobin dissociation curve to shift to the right include_________,
increase PCO2
decrease acidity
increase PO2
decrease temperature

Q44 The PO2 of pulmonary capillary blood when fully oxygenated is________,
1000mmHg
100mmHg
101mmHg
50mmHg

Q45 100ml of blood at full saturation usually carry _______ of oxygen
19.7ml
20.7ml
19.5ml
18.7ml

Q46 Each gram of hemoglobin is capable of carrying _______ of oxygen at full saturation.
1.23ml
2.33ml
1.43ml
1.34ml

Q47 Oxygen is transported in _____ forms in the blood
three
five
two
four

Q48 Oxygen transport consists of _________ important steps
six
two
four
five

Q49 This whole mechanism of gas exchange is carried by the simple phenomenon called ________,
Negative Pressure
Pressure Difference
Positive Pressure
Pressure Negative

Q50 The process of gas exchange has ________ steps
6
4
2
5

Q51 The value of Total Lung Capasity is about_______,
6000ml
6500ml
4500ml
5500ml

Q52 The value of Functional Residual Capasity is about_______
1.2L
3.2L
2L
2.2L

Q53 The value of Inspiratory capacity is about_________,
8.3L
3.8L
3.6L
2.4L

Q54 The volume of air present in the lungs after a inspiratory effort is called__________,
Tidal Volume
Inspiratory Reserved Volume
Total Lung Capacity
Vital Capacity

Q55 The volume of air that moves into and out of the lungs under different conditions can be measured by ______,
Manometer
Spirometry
Barometer
Spirometer

Q56 The diaphragm is capable of vertical excursion of ______ depending on the depth of breathing.
2.5cm to 10cm
1.5cm to 3 cm
2.5cm to 7.5 cm
2cm to 5cm

Q57 The right bronchial artery arises from the _______ right intercostal artery.
Second
First
Fifth
Third

Q58 The blood pumped into the pulmonary circulation at rest is ________,
5L/min
15L/min
1.5L/min
3L/min

Q59 The plasma oncotic pressure is __________ mmHg
35
25
10
15

Q60 The pulmonary circulation is a _________ pressure circulation.
Negative
High
Low
Positive

Q61 _________ Is secreted by the parietal cell of the fundus
HCL
gastrin
instrinsic
extrinsic

Q62 _________neutralizes the gastric acid that refluxes into the esophagus and release heart burn.
mocus
saliva
bicarbonate
pytalin

Q63 _________acts on salivary duct to cause sodium ion reabsorption in exchange for potassium ion.
Adrenalin
Chloride
Aldosterone
Vasopressin

Q64 During high flow rate of saliva, less time is allowed for transfer of ions and hence Na+ is_________ K+
all of the above
equal to
less than
more than

Q65 The saliva in the duct is_________ while the saliva in the mouth is hypotonic.
hypertonic
acidic
isotonic
hypotonic

Q66 Human saliva has a pH range from_________
6.7- 7
6.0-7.0
5.5-6.8
6.5-7.0

Q67 The secretion of saliva per day ranges from_________
1.5-3.0 L
1.5-2.0 L
1- 1.5L
2-3L

Q68 The parotid gland is supplies by cranial nerve_________
nine
seven
ten
six

Q69 The parasympathetic fiber of cranial nerve_________ supplies some part of submaxillary and sublingual glands.
five
six
seven
eight

Q70 _________is sensitive to osmolar changes, pH changes and chemical composition of food.
brachial
myenteric
submucosa
meisner

Q71 The_________plexus control secretion and local blood flow.
Auerbachâ??s
Brachial
meissnerâ??s
myenteric

Q72 The plexus control GIT movement is called_________
brachial
GIT
meisner
myenteric

Q73 The_________plexus is sensitive to stretch
myenteric
meissner
submucosa
meisner

Q74 The_________relaxes in response to appropriate stimulus so that flow can occur from one compartment to the next.
sphinters
colon
stomach
duodenum

Q75 The_________regulates or maintains aurocaudal flow of GIT contents
pylorus
sphincters
secretion
stomach

Q76 The outer GIT plexus that lies between the longitudinal and circular layer and is called_________
GIT
Brachial
Meissner
Myenteric

Q77 The wall of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has an_________ nervous system
sympathetic
voluntary
intrinsic
extrinsic

Q78 Decompression sickness can be avoided if the diver is made to ascend to the surface of the sea gradually over a period of _________ hours
2 to 5
3 to 5
1 to 4
2 to 4

Q79 About_________ of people suffering from decompression sickness develop pain in the joints and muscles of the legs or arms.
0.5
0.9
0.6
0.8

Q80 Cyanosis becomes noticeable when the arterial blood contains_________or more of deoxygenated haemoglobin per 100ml of blood.
6g
4g
5g
6g

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