PUL443 TMA

The Stockholm Conference ended up with _______ declaration of principles.
Which of these is not an  agreegment/protocol on enviroment signed by the Nigeria Government.
The provision for environemtal objective can be found in section ________ of the Constitution.
The case of ____________ is to the effect that the provisions of the African Charter are justifiable for as long as the Act incorporating same is not abrogated.
The principle that states have the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other state was laid down in ________.
The principle that no State may use its territory for activities which violate the rights of other states was decided in
The Rule in ______ establishes that polluters are liable irrespective of wrongful intent of negligence.
In environmental litigation in negligence, the plaintiff in order to succeed need not prove
______  nuisance can be described as an act which interferes with the enjoyment of a right which all members of the society are entitled to.
Which of these is not an effect of population on development.
The problems associated with non compliance and enforcement of environmental laws does not include.
The Catalyst that brought environmental issues to the fore was the ________.
Which of these is a means through which environmental reform strategies can be achieved.
______ is defined as the protection of National environment and the act of preserving something from being lost, waste, damaged or destroyed.
_______ is the protection and preservation of plants and animals
The Ultimate purpose of conservation is to protect the _______ in a healthy operating condition.
Conservation is generally applied to ______
Which of the following is not a statute to  deal with water pollution control.
_______ is a mixture of gases surrounding the earth.
_______ is the harmful effect on the environment of by-provident of human activity.
______ is a physical agent which is found in excess quantity alters the quality of the environment adversely
Which of these is not an effect of water pollution.
Which of these is not  an example of pollution.
The impact of noise pollution can lead to ______.
Which of these is not a traditional method directed to protecting and sustaining development.
During the pre-colonial era, landmass was divided  into which of these
Which of these was not a purpose of the product of the lower forest.
Under the tiers of Government, environmental issues comes under
The law that deals with environmental protection in Nigeria is
Which of these is not true of environmental law.
Which of these is not a theory on environmental protection.
_______ is an interest to something recognised and protected by law.
To give recognition to human survival depends upon ________ environment.
Section _______ of NESREA defines the environment.
Section _____ of the African Charter on Human and People’s Right 1981 links rights to environment and development.
The most fundamental of all human rights is
The rights which environmental pollution affect does not include
After the right to life, the next imporant right is the right to
Section 17(3) of the 1999 Constitution of Nigeria (as amended in 2011) provides for the _____ for all persons
Section 20 of the 1999 Constitution is not ________ as it is not part of Chapter IV of the Consitution.
Any breach of the provision of the African Charter on Human and Peoples Right (Application and Enforcement) Act gives the ________ the right of jurisdiction.
When oil pipe lines are vandalized in order to siphoin crude oil, it is known as ________
_______ was the first company to re-inject gas as far back as 1978 at Ogunta.
Which of these chemicals make water unsafe to the people.
________ means anything that is not or no longer useful and is to be thrown away.
Radioactive wastes, acidic resins, arsenic residue are examples of
Waste can be typologized into _________
Hazardous waste can be classified according to _______
Which of the following is not a source of waste management in Nigeria.
Waste can be managed to the advantage of the society through
The Oil in Navigable Waters Act 1968 does not treat _____
_______ simply means organized efforts of the community to protect its members against diseases.
Which of these ____ is concerned with Public Health.
_______ that is injurious, toic, noxious exposing any person to the risk of death is known as
In which of the following offence is bail discretionary
Which of the following is not a source of criminal law
Under the criminal code, two types of parties are stated
S. 7 of the criminal code provides for how many classes of principal offenders
Section 252 of the Criminal code provides for
All the following are sources of criminal law except
The External manifestation of a crime isknown as the
Which of the following is not an omission
Under the law, parties to an offence are liable according to their
Which of these two classes of offenders are stated under the codes
Which of these defences if successfully raised leads to a discharge and acquittal
Which of the following offence is a Felony
Contempt are of two kinds
Which of these  accords with the African behavioural pattern
Which is not one of the aims of sentencing
Which of these is a varitable guideline in matters of sentencing
The essential ingredients to be established for the offence of perjury include
Which of the following is not an ingredient of false pretence
Sections …. And ….. Provides for the varying degrees of unlawful homicide
Which of these must the prosecution establish in murder cases
Which of this is a partial defence, under the criminal code
…… and ….. Are not criminally responsible for anything done or omitted to be done by them in the exercise of their judicial functions
Which of these  apply to criminal liability of couples
The burden of proof in insanity is
It is an irrebuttable presumption of laws that a child under years has no mensrea
Which of these is not an example of where the courts have rejected the defence of provocation
Section —- of the Criminal code provides for defence of provocation.
….. Defence avails a person who is face with an emergency for which he is not responsible.
Which of these is not an element of criminal liability
Knowledge may expressed as
Under S. 357 of the Criminal Code, any person who commits the offence of rape  is liable to ……with or without canning
Kidnapping is  a ——–
The offence of assault occassioning harm is a
Which of these is not an essential  element of the offence of rape
A defamatory matter is a matter likely to injure the …… of any person
A defamation could be expressed in
Which of these is not capable of being  stolen
Which of these is forearms under the law
Which of these is not an element of House breaking
Section —- of the cirminal codes covers the offence of
Which of these is not a requirement of the offence of Extortion
Which of the following is not a place where judicial proceedings can take place
Which of these is not a determining factor as to whether a tribunal is a court
Contempt in facie curiae means
Which of these defences does prove rest on the prosecution
Whom among the following is not an accomplice
Where a woman by any wilful act or omission causes the death of her child because she is yet to recover from the effect of giving birth, it is known as
In a charge of murder and having regard to the evidence, a person may be convicted for the following except
The concept of retribution is tagged negatively as
The following are aims of sentencing except
The Nigeria Police under takes the prosecution of criminal matters for the States in
The following play important roles in the administration of Criminal justice except
The following are modes which a criminal trial may take except
The following are verdicts of the courts except
Which of those is not a penal theory
Disposition Method does not consist of the following
Which of the following is an example of unnatural offence
Taking a girl under the age of 16 years without her consent out of the reach of her parent is called
To amount to Assault under the Criminal Code, the act must have been done without the
The following are incapable of the offence of rape under the Criminal Code except
_________ psychologists believe that the whole is greater than the sum of the part.
The physical, mental, emotional or social maturation of  the learner as well as the accumulation of experience as a foundation for the building of new learning is
The two major characteristics inherent in human learning are the active and __________ nature of behavioural changes
_________( 2000) defined teaching as a two-way traffic system involving exchange of ideas between the teacher and the students
Which of the following can prevent positive learning to take place?
____________ refers to educational programmes offereed at the secondary school and institution.
Vocational/business is offered at both the formal and the _______ setting
__________ is a prevocational subject which is expected to expose the students to general business knowledge and to have basic ideas about businss
A method which introduces the student  first to the home key roll is
Skill building in_______requires the use of a conducive typewriting room
All the following are methods of teaching a Shorthand  EXCEPT
Reward and Punisment should be given to students regardlesss of age and character
What types of teaching method is used to consolidates the deductive method of teaching?
Teacher -centred methods include lecture method, demonstration method,questioning techniques, textbook method, Visual aids and chalkboard technique
________ laws state that satisfying consequences serve to reinforce stimulus-response bonds
Which of the following psychologists advocates teaching approach which is based on scientific methods ?
Who pro[ounded the theory of  X and Y ?
The desire to learn is inherent in all normal persons
Which teaching method is most suitable for skill subjects?
Learning is reinforced when_________ or more senses are used at the same time
Simulation and role-playing are quite similar because both involve life _______
Audio visuals  aids include the following except_______
Which commission encourage the establishment of business education courses in higher of learning in Nigeria?_____
Physical defects ______ efficiency in learning
John Dewey advocates a teaching approach which is based on ________ method
The field or Gestalt theory is behind ________ of teaching subject matter
________ approach is a method generally used for students in higher institution
Considering Thorndike theory, skill acquisition in business studies can be acquired through_____
Which of the following teaching methods encourages good listening ability?
Methods of teaching that can easily get out of control if not well monitored is__________
Which of the teaching method is more teacher centered
Work done  outside the classroom is called ___________
______ is the oldest type of discovery method
Which of these is not among the major student-oriented methods of teaching political science
Which of these is not an example of none-print materials
Radio and records are example of____ learning
According to (Banks, 1977) political system cconsists of ______ component
All the following are parts of curriculum that are called into play EXCEPT
Curriculum objectives may be derived from studies of the society, the learnes as well as _______
The detailed NECO syllabus consist of _____ parts
Which of these is the reason for studying political science
In a lesson plan which of these comes first
_____ is a set of political institutions which responsibility is to regulate the affairs of the people in a nation
______ is a body of doctrines dealing with the nature of human beings as well as the origin forms, behaviour and purpose of the state
The capacity of the state officials to influence the behaviour of individuals or groups in a country by the use of threat or sactions is _______
The right to rule regardless of the ruler is known as _____
political culture is not given at birth, it has to be acquired over a period of time, the process by which an individual acquires this is kown as _______
In a lesson plan, the setting involves the following execpt
Evaluation process usually come at _______
the lecture method is a bad method when _______
Which of the teaching method do more teacher centered
According to (Banks, 1977) political system cconsists of ______ component
All the following are parts of curriculum that are called into play execpt
Curriculum objectives may be derived from studies of the society, the learnes as well as _______
The detailed NECO syllabus consist of _____ parts
_____ is a set of political institutions which responsibility is to regulate the affairs of the people in a nation
______ is a body of doctrines dealing with the nature of human beings as well as the origin forms, behaviour and purpose of the state
The capacity of the state officials to influence the behaviour of individuals or groups in a country by the use of threat or sactions is _______
The right to rule regardless of the ruler is known as _____
Evaluation process usually come at _______
The early childhood refers to ages _______
____ are of paramount importance in the child’s early education.
Gans, Steder and Almy (1982) describe _____ home as one in which most food comes already prepared, clothing is seldom made and laundry is either sent out or done automatically.
Outside School Hours-care is provided for school children between ____
The process by which cultural values of a society is learned, transferred from one generation to another is
The specific physical and mental abilities such as walking and understanding language is called
 Monitoring and checking process against plans which may need modification based on feedback is
Management group may include
 ____ has the overall responsibility as an individual or on behalf of a management group.
All educational programmes provided within approved public institution is
Which bodies responsible for the management and fund allocation in primary school
  The totality of activities carried out under the umbrella of a school is known as
  ………..principles and practices constitute the most important aspect of effective resources management
 Early childhood educator assistants perform the following duties     EXCEPT
 â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦ provides an important resources to the children and to the school.
 People working with young children should possess the following qualities   EXCEPT
Functional education should be geared towards the acquisition of ______  and ______ as well as relevant competencies
An approved …………..must accompany every purchase by staff or management
Teachers write …………. to reflect an integrated approach, which incorporates all development areas throughout the session.
Financing of educstion is a joint responsibility of the ____ ____ ____
Most developmental psychologists and early childhood educators accept Piaget’s theory that intellectual development (or cognitive ability) is the result of the child’s active engagement with _______
Among the best known and most widely used early childhood curriculum models are_______ EXCEPT
Theories of child development have served as the principal foundation for curriculum _______ development
one of the best known models for curriculum development with special attention to the planning phases can be found in _____ classic little book
Taba Model took what is known as ______approach to curriculum development
Taba listed a ______step sequence for accomplishing curriculum change .
The “Child is the father of the man” is an old but ever resounding attribute made about a ___________
The early childhood years may be divided into _______ levels for purpose of education EXCEPT
Goal Attainment Models focuses  on the achievement of _______ in relation to stated goals and objectives
_____is an approach adopted by evaluators to save a long established programme which policy makers may have seen as about to break down
The three C’s of the early childhood curriculum are ____ EXCEPT
what is considered worthwhile for children to know about and understand, is culturally defined in_____curriculum
Before the curriculum is ready even to be tested, it needs to be_______
One way of monitoring quality is to relate costs to measurement_______
Some experts equate curriculum implementation with _____
curriculum _____is the assessment of programmes, processes and curricular products (material, not human)
Teachers have the responsibility of evaluating both the curriculum and____
Curriculum development is essentially undertaking by _____
Themes, topics and projects are another way of approaching material provision. However, most early childhood educator who use a topic, theme or project approach do not take up the children’s_____
A good curriculum with quality sees adults and children as____
Most developmental psychologists and early childhood educators accept Piaget’s theory that intellectual development (or cognitive ability) is the result of the child’s active engagement with _______
Among the best known and most widely used early childhood curriculum models are_______ EXCEPT
Theories of child development have served as the principal foundation for curriculum _______ development
one of the best known models for curriculum development with special attention to the planning phases can be found in _____ classic little book
Taba Model took what is known as ______approach to curriculum development
Taba listed a ______step sequence for accomplishing curriculum change .
The “Child is the father of the man” is an old but ever resounding attribute made about a ___________
The early childhood years may be divided into _______ levels for purpose of education EXCEPT
Goal Attainment Models focuses  on the achievement of _______ in relation to stated goals and objectives
_____is an approach adopted by evaluators to save a long established programme which policy makers may have seen as about to break down
The traditional function of the Nigerian Union of Teachers was to negotiate with the employers the best possible _____ and conditions of service for their members
One of the aims of N.U.T. is to create a better _____ among the teachers in Nigeria
It would be well for the N. U. T. to find ways of improving the performance of ____ rather than play the role of bargaining
Teachers have a poor self-image of their
The learner is not only expected to be taught academic subjects only but also be prepared morally and _____ to take their places in the society
Good teachers know what they teach and how to ______ it
the teacher should be a person worth ______
The teacher should be  happy and lively person whom the children and their parents can _____
An ideal teacher is a _______
Teachers who are authoritarian produce students who are unable to _______ for themselves
The professional is not expected to _____ the ignorance of his clients
There is a code of _____ clearly defined for members
A profession has a ____ body
Teaching is the ___ of knowledge
Teaching is an ____ craft
Teaching became a job open to all that have some ____ to share with others
The coming of the British into Nigeria, they established the typical ____ schools
The British schools had curriculum and programmes that were hardly ____ to the needs of Nigeria
The prospective teachers were required to serve first as ____ teachers under close supervision of the European Masters
Early teacher training colleges were established but could not produce ____
Teachers learn some _______ so that they would understand the environment in which the child lives and learns
The teacher in his professional growth has to learn to be builders of—
Educational system is the _______ to societal developemnt
The value of academic training should be to have ____ intellectual development of the students
The education of _____ should lay more emphasis on teaching in all situations both in urban and rural areas
The education of teachers will not becompete unless it helps the teachers to recognize and attach himself to ______ associations
The education of the educators is paramount in all ______
The move for professionalism in teaching involves every _______ of the society especially the training institutions
_____ are the biggest employer of teachers in Nigeria
One of the most effective ways to _____ teaching is through the effective functioning and a good professional organisation of the teachers
Teachers learn some _______ so that they would understand the environment in which the child lives and learns
The teacher in his professional growth has to learn to be builders of—
Educational system is the _______ to societal developemnt
The value of academic training should be to have ____ intellectual development of the students
The education of _____ should lay more emphasis on teaching in all situations both in urban and rural areas
The education of teachers will not becompete unless it helps the teachers to recognize and attach himself to ______ associations
The education of the educators is paramount in all ______
The move for professionalism in teaching involves every _______ of the society especially the training institutions
_____ are the biggest employer of teachers in Nigeria
One of the most effective ways to _____ teaching is through the effective functioning and a good professional organisation of the teachers
The International Court compose of how many Judges?
International law today has transformed into what?
One of these statements is true of the doctrine of tracing
The relationship between the dual ownership existing in trust property can be described as
Even though the equitable maxim of “equity will not suffer a wrong to be without a remedy” exists, thre are some wrongs that cannot be remedies. One of them is
Akpan acquires an equitable charge over blackacre as security for a loan of 2million. Bala later takes a legal mortgage of Blackacre to secure a loan of N1.5million. Bala had no notice of Akpan’s equitable charge when he lent the money and now the value of Blackacre has dropped. What equitable maxim is best applicable?
Monsuru and Bello purchase White acre by contributing the purchase money  in unequal shares and the property was conveyed to them jointly. Five months after purchase, Monsuru dies and Bello becomes entitled to the whole property at law. What equitable maxim is best applicable to protect the interest of Monsuru?
An applicable maxim applicable to the doctrine of conversion is
The function of _____________is to prevent the holder of a superior title from using such title for a purpose that is inconsistent with good faith and hones dealings
Some areas of substantive law owe their development to equity. Which doctrines have primarily equitable roots?1.   Fiduciary obligations  2. Fraud   3.  Contract  4.  Constructive trust  5. Bailment   6. Mistake
What case held that notice that comes to the knowledge of a solicitor in a previous transaction cannot be imuted to a purchaser in a subsequent transaction?
Ada, recognizing an impending bankruptcy and not wanting her land to be sold to the benefit of her creditors, sells the land to Sade, who knows the intentions of Ada. The parties agree that once Ada is free from bankruptcy, Sade will reconvey the proeprty. Following the conclusion of her bankruptcy, Ada asks Sade to reconvey her property but she refuses. Ada sues in equtiy to regian her property while Sade raises the defense of unclean hands because Ada conveyed the property to defraud her creditors. What is the likely holding of the court?
Rambo borrows N20million from Jay Jay, to record his next song. Rambo refuses to pay the money even after he has realised the profit from the records. The nature of Jay’s rights to the debt can be described as:
Prior to 1873, the only way a right in debt was enforceable and recoverable at equity was
The WACA held that defendants, a party to the orignal contract, could not be held liable unde the contract because there had been novation, a new contract between the plaintiffs and a new firm. This is the case of
Does the period of limitation apply to customary law?
Danladi, in 1950, made a Will devising his estate at Cross Country to Usman, and bequeathed all his personalty to yahaya. During Nigerian independence, Danladi granted a lease of Cros Country to Zammy for a decade, with an opiton to purchase the reversion for N5million before the expiration of the lease. Danladi died in 1962 and a year later, Zammy exercised the option. If it is deemed that conversion took place the date  Zammy exercised the option, what rule was applied to reach that conclusion?
The doctrine of estoppel was orignally developed by the common law
Under the rule in _____________, where a contract precedes a Will, the court will hold that the Will, having been made after the date of the contract fro sale and with full knowlede o that contract on the part of the testator,  it indicates an intention of the testator to pass whatever the testator had in the property to the specific devisees.
Tanto by his Will, gave N500,000 to his trustees with a direction that the money be laid out for the purchase of land or put the same out on good securities for the use of his daughter, Dream. Dream survive Tanto but the money was not invested in any pruchase until after Dream’s death. Under the rule in conversion, was there a valid conversion?
The ‘use’ is an embryonic form of
The penalty for disobeying the comon injunction was damages
Where Abu gives Banana Island to Ada, which in fact, belongs to Koko, and by another provision in the Will, Abu gives his own property Iwo Estate to Koko, the operative doctrine is
Francis had a power of appointment over stock in favour of his children. He appointed by his Will part of the stock to the children and part to strangers, that is, persons who were not objects of the power. The children weere entitled in default of appointment. Applying the essentials of the doctrine of election, advice the children on their entitlement under the instrument.
Wole is under an obligation to pay annuity of N300,000 to his aunt. He therefore bequeath the residue of his estate to his mother and aunt.In your knowledge of the doctrine of satisfaction, do you think that there has been satisfaction?
The remedy of rescission
the remedy of rectification
Intention is critical in determining the question of satisfaction
Acquiescence means
“If two persons go partner as smugglers, can one maintain a bill against the other  to have an account of the smuggling transaction? I should say certinly not….it is no part of the duty of a Court of Justice to aid either in carrying out illegal contract, or in dividing the proceeds arising from illegal contract, between the parties to that illegal contract.” Sykes v. Beadon (1879) Per Jessel M.R. The court in this case was applying the equitable maxim of
In an equity case, the court has discretion when it comes to the award of a remedy
As a result of the Judicature Acts,
A trust created in a life time of the testator is reffered to as
A trust established for the purpose of providing members of the public is
Which of the following statements is true?
Which of the following statements are true? i. A resulting trust will be imposed regardless of intention ii.  A resulting trust will be imposed when a persons conscience is affected  iii.  A resulting trust will be imposed when there are uncertaninty of objects  iv. A resulting trust can be classified as either automatic or presumed
By the decision in Hill v. Hill (1897) the words “I leave in charge”, does it create a trust?
The ratio of the decision of the court in the case of Mussoorie Bank Ltd. V. Raynor I1882) was that
Carla gave a gold bracelet and a diamond ring to trustees to convey to his two daughters with the instruction to convey one of the jewelries to the elder and the other. Unfortunately, the younger daughter died before the older. Advice the trustees on the conveyance of the jewelries
Kaka appoints Nana as trustee with powers to oversee his estate “until my children are matured and responsible enough”. Which of the three limitations will you apply to validate the trust?
Which of the following gifts do not demostrate an intention to create a trust? 1.   Nduka wins N250,000 with his premium bonds numbers. He meets his best friend, Chinedu to celebrate his winnings. At the end of the evening, he presents Chinedu with a cheque for N10,000 saying, ‘i know how hard you work for your loved ones, so i want you to have this, for your family’;  2.   Ada’s Will states: “i leave N50m to Hia, which i would like him to divide between himself and his brothers as he deems fit”  3.   Anu and Ade are in love. They decide to move in together and Ade agrees to pay N350,000 per monthfor the rent. When Ade moves into Anu’s house, Anu hands him a set of keys and says : “This is our home now”  4.   Martin’s  Will contains the following provisions: “i leave N100,000 to Ernest, to apply the net income at his discretion amongst my relatives for a period of ten years, after which time the capital shall be divided equally amongst my surviving children”.
Odu, a staunch follower of John Rawl’s Justice theory, believes that welfare of citizens are paramount and public goods should be for the general public . He also believes in the philosophy of social contract. He desires to set up a trust for the furtherance of the teaching of the justice theory. What would your answer likely be?
Fred and Freddi are trustees. Unknown to Freddie, Fred takes N1m from the trust accounts to purchase a building in Maroko. The building has appreciated due to the new face of Maroko into VGC. The building is now worth N250million. When Freddie and the beneficiaries discover Fred’s action, they seek advice from you on what they can claim.
Timothy and Vanessa have agreed to act as trustees. Under the trust, which contins a range of property, including land, Lisa is to be entitled to thei ncome for 20years, after which time the remainder will pass to her children, Tye and Kye.  Timothy and Vanessa have no experience in administering and managing a trust and wish to delegate as many functions as they can to more experienced individuals. Which of the following cannot be delegated?
Timothy and Vanessa have agreed to act as trustees. Under the trust, which contins a range of property, including land, Lisa is to be entitled to thei ncome for 20years, after which time the remainder will pass to her children, Tye and Kye. Timothy and Vanessa are particularly keen to delegate the selection and management of trust investments. Which of the following choice is appropriate?
Timothy and Vanessa have agreed to act as trustees. Under the trust, which contins a range of property, including land, Lisa is to be entitled to thei ncome for 20years, after which time the remainder will pass to her children, Tye and Kye. Tye is 25yearls old and is keen to start his own business, designing websites. He approaches Timothy and Vanessa to ask for an advancement on his entitlement. Which statutory provision is most relevant to his request?
Which principle does the decision in Keech v. Standford (19=726) illustrate?
Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the decision in Boardman v. Phipps (1967)
Amina is the solicitor for Tantys Trust, which is currently involved in litigation with Star Systems Ltd. She is approached by a representative of Star Systems Ltd who pays her N250,000 in return for encouraging the Tanty Trust to settle its claim rather than going to court. Amina takes the money and uses it to purchase a holiday home in US. One year later, Tantys Trust discovers that Amina has accepted money from Star Systems Ltd. they also discover the US property bought with the money, which is now worth N1.5million. What can Tantys Trust claim?
Which of the following statements are valid reasons for the requirements of formalities in relation to the creation and disposition of equitable interests? i.  To prevent fraud against the beneficiary  ii.  To prevent fraud by the trustee  iii.  To hamper the creaton of equitable interests  iv. to create certainty of transactions  v.   to allow the correct allocation of tax liabilities
Can a valid trust of land be declared orally?
Which statement most accurately states the formalities required for the creation of a trust In chattels?
The Berlin wall was removed in 1989 since then there has beens changes and operation in Interhational Law.
The 20th century notions ofSovereignty and the rules of International law use to effect compliance is
The status of the United Nations in broader picture of the world is in doubt because of the power of
Writers have not yet agreed on the acceptable definition of Internatioal law.
International legal regime consist of the following except.
The subjects of International law now includes except
International law is been criticized for lack of
Cassese is of the view that International is more of domestic law
Why is the development of International law considered disappointing?
There is no difference betwween International and Domestic law
United Nations Gen Assembly is the supreme legislative body that makes law for the world.
A law pass horizontal referred to
States in breached of International law are force to appear at
Law passed vertically  is referred to
Compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice referred to
International Universal acceptance of sovreign equality of states means
Consent to jurisdiction of international Court of Justice on particular dispute a country must be
At the United Nations General Assembly
Which of the following statements about McPhail v. Doulton (1971) are true? 1. McPhail v. Doulton establishes the same test for certainty of objects for discretionary trusts as for fixed trusts; 2.   McPhail v. Doulton establishes the same test for certainty of objects for discretionary trusts as for fiduciary powers  3.  Re Baden’s Trust (No.2) (1973) overruled McPhail v. Doulton in respect of discretionary trust  4.   McPhail v. Doulton considered whether relatives and dependents were conceptually certain  5.   McPhail v. Doulton states that a discretionary trust will fail because fo evidential uncertainty
What legal authority held that a trust set up a trust for the ducation of children of employees and ex-employees  was based on personal relationship between the settlor and the potential beneficiaries, hence not charitable?
 Sam in his Will states: ‘I leave the rest of my immense fortune to Friday  and Sunday on the understanding that they appoint, at their absolute discretion, the whole or any part of the property or its income to any Nigerian born atilogun dancer, their relatives and thier dependants’. Which statement best describes the following disposition?
Under what branch of trust will you categorise a trsut to assist victims of boko haram insurgence?
Ada makes a Will of her entire estate in 2000  and shares between her three children, Ahmed, Abah and Sule, each taking in order of seniority. By 2010, the value of her estate has increased. Ada dies without a disposition of the increase. What is effect of the residue of the estate
Ten jolly good friends gathered together and contributed money into a Trust Fund for a common purpose. After the fulfiment of the purpose, there was surplusage. Advise the ten jolly good friends on the disposal of the surplusage.
Association For Better Nigeria, called for a Trust Fund on how to help the Chibok girls settle back into normal life. They called on Nigerians to contribute money towards this noble cause. Many Nigerians, including those in diaspora, foreigners, contributed and helped settle the Chibok girls back. There is a surplus of N200million. As a law student, advice the Association of Better Nigeria on the distribution of the N200million surplus.
What types of resulting trusts are there?
When will a presumed resulting trust arise?
What authority provides  that a settlor may  state other  objectives which the beneficial interest can be applied where the primary purpose fails
The major different between International and dometic law is that
How many stages did Cassese suggests the development of international law?
Internatioal law was primarily
The fore runner of international court of Justice
Senator Meru has been charged with embezzling public funds worth over $400m. Which of these options best describe him?
Timothy and Vanessa have agreed to act as trustees. Under the trust, which contins a range of property, including land, Lisa is to be entitled to thei ncome for 20years, after which time the remainder will pass to her children, Tye and Kye.  Timothy and Vanessa have no experience in administering and managing a trust and wish to delegate as many functions as they can to more experienced individuals. Which of the following cannot be delegated?
Timothy and Vanessa have agreed to act as trustees. Under the trust, which contins a range of property, including land, Lisa is to be entitled to thei ncome for 20years, after which time the remainder will pass to her children, Tye and Kye. Timothy and Vanessa are particularly keen to delegate the selection and management of trust investments. Which of the following choice is appropriate?
Timothy and Vanessa have agreed to act as trustees. Under the trust, which contins a range of property, including land, Lisa is to be entitled to thei ncome for 20years, after which time the remainder will pass to her children, Tye and Kye. Tye is 25yearls old and is keen to start his own business, designing websites. He approaches Timothy and Vanessa to ask for an advancement on his entitlement. Which statutory provision is most relevant to his request?
Which principle does the decision in Keech v. Standford (19726) illustrate?
What is the overriding consideration of the court when exercising its power of appointment?
Amina is the solicitor for Tantys Trust, which is currently involved in litigation with Star Systems Ltd. She is approached by a representative of Star Systems Ltd who pays her N250,000 in return for encouraging the Tanty Trust to settle its claim rather than going to court. Amina takes the money and uses it to purchase a holiday home in US. One year later, Tantys Trust discovers that Amina has accepted money from Star Systems Ltd. they also discover the US property bought with the money, which is now worth N1.5million. What can Tantys Trust claim?
Which of the following statements are valid reasons for the requirements of formalities in relation to the creation and disposition of equitable interests? i.  To prevent fraud against the beneficiary  ii.  To prevent fraud by the trustee  iii.  To hamper the creaton of equitable interests  iv. to create certainty of transactions  v.   to allow the correct allocation of tax liabilities
How many trustees are required to validly issue receipts for capital money?
Ada creates a private trust for the benefit of her family. She however, did not appoint a trustee at the time of creating the trust. After the trust became operative, she tried to appoint additional trustees. She has now come to advice her whether she could appoint additional trustees. Which of the following is the most likely answer?
The physical separation between husband and wife of a statutory marriage is referred to as
The court that has jurisdiction to entertain procedings and grant decrees of separation of a statutory marriage is the
Nkiru and Nduka were forcefully married to fulfil their parents wishes. Two weeks after the marriage, both of them knew they had made a mistake. After 6months, Nkiru secured an order of court for judicial separation. While the order subsisted, the couple voluntarily resumed cohabitation . What is the appropriate order to set aside the order?
The main aim of restittution of conjugal rights under Sectio 47 the MCA is
 _______________is a matrimonial relief available to a party to a statutory marriage whose spouse has either refused to cohabit with him/her or has refused to render conjugal rights to the petitioner.
The totality of rights that a husband and wife enjoy from each other by virtue of their marriage is known as :
In resolution of matrimonial dispute, the judge, may do one of the following:
The section of the Matrimonial Causes Act that provides for grounds for restitution of conjugal rights is _______________
“Qui facti per alium faci per se” means
The bars and defences to a petition for dissolution of marriage also apply with equal force to any petition for judicial separation. True or False?
One of these is not an effect of judicial separation
A case on jactation is
One of the following is not a source of Wills in Nigeria
The maxim “he who does an act through another, does it himself” is apt for
The case in which the court held that  a marriage celebrated without the Registrar’s certificate is invalid is
What theory focuses on the fact that marriage has broken down irretrievably?
It if it was the intention of the parties to get married under the Ordinance and they believed that they went through a form of marriage recognised by law….then if the marriage had been performed by a minister of religion in a place of worship licensed under the Ordinance…..for the purpose, the marriage in my view, would not be void merely by reason of non-compliance with sections 11 and 13 unless it was affirmatively shown that the parties wilfully and knowingly failed to comply with the said sections…….now on the evidence before me, i feel quite sure that the petitioner ….had no knowledge of the legal requirements of a valid marriage under the ordiannce and she told me it was her intention and belief that she was going through a form of marriage recognised by both the church and the ordinance’. This is the case of
………………….is a complete cessation of all marital duties and obligations flowing from cohabitation
The leave of the court is required because of
Under customary law, marriage between persons related to a certain degree by either blood or marriage is ______________
Where the parents of the groom or bride is deceased, ___________may give their consent
Failure to reside within a marriage district for a minimum of 15days before the grant of a Registrar’s certificate will______________
_____________arises when statutory marriages are purportedly celebrated without compliance with some or all formal rules of procedure.
Which of the following statements relating to consummation of a marriage is incorrect?
Special license is granted under section _____
A  __________ is an objection raised by any interested or affected person against a proposed statutory marriage
The authority that issues a special license for the celebration of marriage is
The award of a license is authorised by the ______________
A ___________ is made to provide temporary physical custody of children to either party to the marriage, pending the disposal of the main matrimonial proceedings.
___________ is the order of court which grants the right to organize and administer the day to day residential care of a child to either one or both parents of the child.
League of Nations was able to preserved World peace
The Bolshevik revolution that challenge the economic and political consensus took place in
The Paris Pack on Banning of War was signed in
The significant vestiges of League of Nations is
What was the achievement of World War ii?
What is the principal goal of the United Nations?
The U.S.A has risen to become the only
The International law ideas  evolved
The acceptance of the principle of Pacta Suan servanda simply refers
The Western view of International law is said to be
The suggested rule to be singular on International way of encompassing the World is
International law is a law of coordination not as the domestic law suggested by
What distinguishes International law from International relation is that law
International law sources still present problems today.
Which Article of the Intern. Court of Justice deals with sources of International law?
International Court of Justice deciding a case ex acquo et bono means
One of the major sources of International law is
The generic term treaty covers
A Treaty that has been procured by threat of any kind is
A recent coerced treaty would not have been void had it been concluded
Pre-emptory norms is also referred to
Reservation in International law do recognised necessity of
What are the elements required in customary International law?
Name one subsidiary source of International law if any
The most nearly legal meaning of soft law is the
The history of sovereignty can be traced to the
Non state actors today are basically
The place of individual before 1945 was
The 19th century saw the beginning of intergovernmental became
Territorial jurisdiction is complete and absolute because sovereignty is co-extensive by
A Nationalist is subject to state’s jurisditionwhenever in the world.
Example of Nationalist subject to state’s jurisdiction exemplified by
Protective jurisdiction is necessitated by states for acts prejudicial to their security
International law acceptsstates will act to punish deeds beyong their borders but
Under international a state can summons citizens of another state
Universal jurisdiction was accepted by International law after 17th century states can
The purpose of calling a witness is to elicit from him or her evidence of facts which he
or she has perceived by means of his or her senses.
An expert opinion may be received, in evidence if it relates to a technical or
scientific matter in which the competency to form an opinion cannot be acquired
except by a course of special study or experience.
 Formal qualification of the expert in expert evidence is important but not a condition precedent
Which of the following is evidence of personal knowledge which tend to prove a fact without  inference
Law of evidence belongs to which division of law
Which type of evidence is referred to as oblique evidence
When is conclusive evidence also called irrebutable presumption of law
In the absence of direct evidence, the following will go to prove an allegation of adultery except
Except __________________________, other options constitute weaknesses of circumstantial evidence
____ is the foundation of proof.
______ is that which may be placed before the court in order that it may decide issues of fact.
Aguda’s definition of Evidence excludes ____
A _________ is anything, state of things, or relation of things capable of being perceived by the senses.
______________ are all the facts which the plaintiff/claimant or prosecution and the Defendant or accused must prove to succeed in his or her claim or defence.
________ is a statement made in a document which is referred to the court in proof of any fact.
__________________ is any material object offered in court for its inspection.
________ is a proof of a fact by a witness who perceived it with the relevant sense.
___________ consists of several ancillary pieces of evidence none of which is direct on the facts in issue but a combination of which justifies a finding that the facts in issue is proved.
Certified copies of documents are eamples of –
Copies made from or compared with the original is an example of which type of evidence.
Copies made from the original by mechanical process which ensure the accuracy of the copy is referred to as –
Secondary evidence of a document may be given if the original is in the possession of the adverse party.
A letter written by John to Peter, his friend is an example of –
A document emanating from public official in his private capacity is termed.
All documents other than public documents are private documents
A fact is any act, condition or thing, assumed as happening or existing.
A fact may consist of a series of facts or be part of the transaction.
As a general rule evidence can only be given of _______________
_____________ is the kind of evidence which the court can properly receive and utilise in the adjudication of matters presented before it.
__________ means the document itself produced for the inspection of the court.
Evidence of Character may be admitted in the following circumstances
Evidence of  a witness’s character becomes relevant in the following circumstances
. In civil proceedings, evidence of conviction of a defendant is
. Character evidence in form of previous conviction may be allowed in all BUT ONE
Opinion evidence is generally not permissible unless the witness is
Hearsay evidence is admissible in the following instances
. “Evidence of a statement made to a witness by a person, who is not, himself called as a witness, may or may not be hearsay. It is hearsay and inadmissible when the object of the evidence is to establish the truth of what is contained in the statement ………” This was the rule in:
Hearsay evidence is generally inadmissible except as permitted by:
Which is the following is a false statement?
An agent can make an admission
A party suing in a representative capacity can make an admisson
Admission can be made by a  party having a pecuniary interest
An admission contained in a party’s pleading is an example of which type of pleading.
An admission by Counsel during proceedings is an example of which type of Admission.
Answers made in response to interrogatories are examples of which type of admission.
Agreements made by parties before or on during trial constitutes –
A written admission made before or during proceeding is an example of –
Informal admission constitutes an exception to the hearsay rule.
Admission may be voluntary or Involuntary
Professor Asade, a Chief and native of Ogba town, has written a book on the Native Law and Custom of the Ogba people. Can the court rely on his opinion and book to form its own opinion as to the Native law and Custom of the Ogba people?
Before his last breath Chief Olowo told the Medical officer attending to his gun shot wound that it was Mr. Gunpowder that shot him. Will the Medical Officer’s evidence as to the who shot Mr. Olowo be admissible in law according to Section 39 of the Evidence Act 2011.
The following are types of estoppel except?
For a successful plea of res judicata, the following ingredients must be available except
Certain conditions must be present for issue estoppel to operate. They include
As a general rule once an issue has been raised and distinctly determined between the parties, neither party can be allowed to fight that issue all over again. True or False
which of the options does the folowing definition best suits: “a matter that has been adjudicated by a competent court and therefore may not be pursued further by the same parties.”
By, Section 308, CFRN 1999 (as amended) the following persons are competent but not compellable witnesses, except
The following are persons who do not need to swear or afirm by oath, except?
As a general rule, a witness is compellable if he or she may lawfully be required to give evidence. True or False
According to ——— of the Evidence Act, 2011, Children are competent witnesses unless the court considered that they are prevented from understanding questions put to them or they are unable to give rational answers.
__________is that branch of the law that developed in response to the socio-economic functions of the State and the increased powers of the government.
The publication of rules or regulations or action by the administrative agency after the law has been made for the notice or information of stakeholders is known as ________.
The prior publication of proposed rules or regulations or action by the administrative agency for the notice or information of stakeholders is referred to as ________.
The act of bringing the decision, rule, regulation, policy of the administrative agency to the knowledge of the stakeholders or the general public is known as ___________.
The rule-making process by which an administrative agency gets interested persons or those to be affected by its decisions involved in the arrangements leading to the coming into effect of its rules, regulations and policies is referred to as _________.
The issuance of regulations or the making of determinations which are addressed to indicated but unnamed and unspecified persons or situations are referred to as _______.
According to Dicey, the first meaning of rule of law is the predominance of law over discretionary power
Equality before the law is an aspect of rule of law
In formulating the rule of law, Dicey was influenced by the practice of specialized courts in France
The concept that one arm of govrnment should not exercise the functions o other arms of overnment is referred as-
____________is the branch of law regulating the relationship between the citizen and the State.
____________ defines Administrative law as the law relating to the administration. It determines the organization, powers and duties of administrative authorities.
The main object of the study of administrative law is to unravel the way in which these administrative authorities could be kept within their limits so that the discretionary powers may not be turned into___________.
Administrative law seemed to have developed from the most powerful forces ____
Collective responsibility is the feature of which type of government
A legislature can neither bind itself nor its successors

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