NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA
14/16 AHMADU BELLO WAY, VICTORIA ISLAND, LAGOS
SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
MARCH/APRIL 2014 EXAMINATION
COURSE CODE: BIO 306
COURSE TITLE: GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY II
TIME ALLOWED: 2 HOURS
INSTRUCTION: ANSWER ANY FOUR QUESTIONS
1ai. What do you understand by the term osmoregulation.
ii. Distinguish between osmoconformers and osmosregulators.
b. What is the significance of the following?
(i) diffusion (ii) osmosis
2ai. Outline the factors affecting imbibitions.
ii. Describe the consequences of plasmolysis.
b. Some factors affect the rate of water absorption in plants. Discuss
3ai. Define excretory organ.
iiEnumerate the functions of the mammalian kidney.
bi. Explain howterrestial animals overcome the problems of water loss and water gains.
ii.Writeshort notes onthe following nitrogenous waste products:
(i) urea (ii) ammonia (iii) uric acid
4ai. List the factors affecting stomatal opening and closing.
ii. Describe the common defects of the eye.
bi. Explain the need for osmoregulation in animals.
ii. Describe the relationship between osmotic equilibrium and ionic composition of marine animals.
5ai. Outline the kinds of water available to plants in the soil.
ii. Differentiate between transpiration and evaporation.
b. Briefly explain the following:
(i) perception of body balance (ii) mechanism of hearing
6ai. Enumerate the osmotic challenges facing animals in the freshwater environment face.
ii. Highlight the factors affecting evaporative water loss in terrestrial animals.
b. Briefly describe any four urinary disorders you know.
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